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Who's Who in Roman Britain


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GodThe god of doctors and medicine. He is usually shown with a snake because it was thought that snakes were able to find healing herbs. This is why you will see a snake on the sign for a chemist's shop in many countries.
Aesculapius, the Roman god of doctors visiting a patient. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain
SoldierGnaeus Julius Agricola was born in Fréjus (Forum Julii) in southern Gaul, and was Governor of Britain in about 78-84. His career was described in a biography by his son-in-law Tacitus. He is the first governor for which there is written evidence from Britain itself. It is in the form of an inscription on a stone tablet from the forum at St Albans (Verulamium) and inscriptions on water pipes from the fortress at Chester. Agricola completed the Roman conquest of north Wales and conquered all of northern Britain and most of Scotland where he defeated the Caledonian tribes at battle of Mons Graupius.
Modern statue of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Governor of Britain (c.78-84), in his home town of Fréjus, France. Photo Patrick Ottaway
EmperorFinance minister to the rebel emperor Carausius whom he murdered in 293. Allectus was defeated by the legitimate Roman emperor, Constantius I in 296 after his fleet became fog-bound off the Isle of Wight.
Brading Roman villa (Isle of Wight) display area. Photo Simon I. Hill, Oglander Roman Trust
Ammianus Marcellinus
Writer4th century historian of the Roman empire who came from Syria. The surviving part of his work deals with the years 354-78. It describes events in 367 when Britain was invaded by hostile barbarians who put one Roman general out of action and killed another.
Reconstruction of the late Roman signal station at Filey (North Yorkshire). Drawing by Simon Chew and Peter Marshall, York Archaeological Trust
GodApollo was the god of prophecy who could foretell the future. In Britain Apollo is often shown on Roman mosaics in his role as the god of song and music.
Relief of the Roman god Apollo, shown with his lyre, from Ribchester Roman fort (Lancashire). Photo Simon I. Hill, Ribchester Museum Trust
EmperorThe first emperor of Rome who ruled 27 BC - AD14. He was originally called Octavian, but as he was the nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar he took the names Augustus Caesar. In Latin augustus means 'majestic'. Before he became emperor Augustus was a successful general who defeated his rival Antony and the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra in a sea battle at Actium in 31 BC. Augustus gave his name to the month of August and he appears in the bible as the Roman emperor at the time of the birth of Jesus Christ.
Bronze head, about 0.45m high, thought to be the Emperor Augustus from Meroe, Sudan, now in the British Museum. The eyes are made of alabaster and glass. Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum, The British Museum
Aulus Plautius
SoldierCommander of the Roman army which invaded Britain in 43. He was responsible for the first Roman fort built in Britain at Richborough in Kent.
The defensive ditches of the first Roman fort at Richborough (Kent) which date to the time of the invasion of 43. Photo Simon I. Hill with the kind permission of English Heritage.


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GodThe youthful god of wine. In Roman art Bacchus is often shown carrying a special kind of wand called a thyrsus, which has a fir cone or vine leaves at the top. He is usually surrounded by wild dancing girls known as maenads and creatures who are half man and half goat called satyrs.
Dancing satyr and maenad (heads destroyed) and pan pipes (lower right) on a mosaic at Chedworth Roman villa (Gloucestershire). Photo Simon I. Hill, Chedworth Roman Villa.
BritonQueen of the Iceni, a British tribe living in what is now Norfolk. Her name means 'Victory'. In 60-61, after the death of her husband Prasutagus, she led a revolt of the Britons against the Romans. Her armies burnt Colchester, St Albans and London, but were then defeated by the Romans.
Bronze statue of Queen Boudicca and her daughters on Victoria Embankment, London by Thomas Thorneycroft (about 1850). Photo Patrick Ottaway


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Briton A Caledonian chief whose army was defeated by Agricola at the battle of Mons Graupius. The writer Tacitus reports that Calgacus gave a splendid speech before the battle urging the Britons to unite to defeat the Romans.
Artist's impression of the Caledonian chieftain Calgacus. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain.
EmperorEmperor who ruled 211-217 and the son of Emperor Septimius Severus. His real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, but he was nicknamed Caracalla because of a type of cloak he wore. He was a cruel man and murdered his younger brother Geta because he feared he would be a rival. Eventually Caracalla himself was murdered.
Cameo in the semi-precious stone sardonyx of the Emperor Caracalla (211-217) dressed as Hercules with a lion's skin around his neck. From South Shields Roman fort (Tyne and Wear). Tyne and Wear Museums.
Caratacus (known in Welsh as Caradog)
BritonA British prince, the son of Cunobelinus, king of the Catuvellauni tribe. He was fiercely anti-Roman and led British armies against the invading Romans in the south-east of England and later in Wales. In 51 he was finally defeated while leading the Ordovices tribe in mid Wales and fled to Cartimandua, Queen of the Brigantes. She handed him over to the Romans. He was taken to Rome in triumph, but his bravery impressed the Romans and he was pardoned by the Emperor Claudius.
Artist's impression of the British prince Caratacus. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain
EmperorRebel emperor in the later 3rd century. Carausius was a man of humble origin from what is now Belgium. He rose to become a successful commander of the British fleet and fought against pirates in the English Channel. In 287 he declared himself emperor and controlled Britain and part of northern Gaul. In 293 he lost the port of Boulogne in Gaul to the rightful Roman emperor and was murdered by his finance minister Allectus.
Coin of the rebel emperor, Carausius, who ruled Britain 287-293. Photo: Simon I Hill, York Archaeological Trust
BritonQueen of the Brigantes tribe in northern England. Her name means 'sleek pony'. In 51 Cartimandua handed Caratacus over to the Romans. In 54 she fell out with her husband Venutius and to prevent a civil war between her followers and his the Romans had to send in troops to restore her to power. After this Cartimandua rejected Venutius in favour of his armour-bearer, a man named Vellocatus. In 71 Venutius again threatened to overthrow Cartimandua and the Romans moved in to defeat him and conquer Brigantian territory.
Artist's impression of the Brigantian Queen Cartimandua. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain.
EmperorTiberius Claudius Drusus was emperor 41 - 54. As a young man Claudius was thought to be weak and feeble-minded, but he belonged to the imperial family and so the army was prepared to make him emperor. Claudius surprised everyone by becoming a good ruler. Claudius was emperor when the Romans invaded Britain in 43.
Bronze head from a statue of the Emperor Claudius, found in the River Alde in Suffolk. Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum, The British Museum
Cogidubnus (or Togidubnus)
BritonA British king in southern England in the late 1st century AD. Cogidubnus was allowed to keep his throne after the Roman invasion because he supported the Romans, especially during the revolt of Boudicca. He is mentioned by Tacitus and his name also appears on an inscription at Chichester. At the end of his life he may have lived in the Roman palace at Fishbourne.
An artist's impression of Cogidubnus, the native British king. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain
EmperorLucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus was emperor 180-92. He went mad and fought in the Colosseum believing he was the god Hercules. In the end he was murdered by his courtiers.
Silver coin (denarius) of the Emperor Commodus (180-92). The reverse shows the goddess Minerva with a javelin. Photo: Simon I Hill, York Archaeological Trust.
EmperorEmperor 306-37 and known as Constantine 'the Great'. He was born in what is now Yugoslavia and was hailed as emperor by the army on the death of his father, Constantius I at York in 306. It was another eighteen years before he defeated all his rivals for the throne. In Constantine's reign Christianity was tolerated in the empire for the first time. It was said that this happened because Constantine had a vision of Christ before a battle with one of his rivals.
Bronze coin of Emperor Constantine I - known as 'the Great' (306-37). York Archaeological Trust
Constantius I
EmperorEmperor 293-306. Constantius came to Britain to crush the rebel Allectus. He was known as Constantius 'chlorus', a word which means green in Latin because of the colour of his face. He was the father of Constantine the Great and died in York in 306.
Bronze coin of the Emperor Constantius I (305-6). The wording on the reverse reads GEN POP ROM, short for Genio Populusque Romanum, which means 'to the spirit of the Roman people'. The spirit, or genius, is shown holding a patera (vessel with a handle) and cornucopia (horn of plenty). The mint mark PLG means the coin was minted at Lyon (Lugdunum), in Gaul. York Archaeological Trust
GodThe god of love and son of the goddess Venus. In Roman art he is usually shown carrying a bow from which he shoots his golden arrows at people to make them fall in love.


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GoddessThe goddess of the flocks and the hunt. In Roman art she is usually seen with a bow and arrow, and a hunting dog or a stag.
Sculpture of the goddess Diana at Housesteads on Hadrian's Wall. Photo Simon I. Hill with the kind permission of English Heritage.
EmperorTitus Flavius Domitianus was emperor from 81-96. He became very unpopular with the leaders of the Senate and was murdered in a palace plot involving his wife Domitia.
Silver coin (denarius) of the Emperor Domitian (81-96). Reverse shows the goddess Minerva. Photo: Simon I Hill, York Archaeological Trust


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GoddessThe goddess of fortune and luck. She is often shown with a ship's rudder which she uses to guide the affairs of the world and sometimes she has a horn of plenty (cornucopia) which is a symbol of the gifts of good fortune.
Intaglios (gemstones used in seal rings) showing the goddess Fortuna (stone is cornelian, 18mm high) and god Mars (stone is jasper, 15mm high) from York. Photo: Simon I Hill, York Archaeological Trust.
Soldier Sextus Julius Frontinus was Governor of Britain from 74-78. He campaigned in Wales and founded the legionary fortress at Caerleon.
The Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon (Gwent). Photo Simon I. Hill with kind permission CADW - Welsh Historic Monuments


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EmperorPublius Aelius Hadrianus was emperor from 117-138. Hadrian was born in Italica in southern Spain. He spent most of his life making the frontiers of the Roman empire safe and spent little time in the city of Rome itself. He came to Britain in 122 and ordered work to begin on the wall which now bears his name. Hadrian's Wall formed Roman Britain's northern frontier. Hadrian was a patron of the arts and started a fashion for wearing a beard because he thought it made him look like a Greek philosopher.
Bronze bust of Emperor Hadrian - part of a larger than life size statue found in the Thames at London. Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum, The British Museum
God A god famous for his strength who always carries a huge club. He strangled deadly snakes as an infant. At the age of eighteen he killed a lion and afterwards wore its skin. In a fit of madness Hercules killed his own children and as punishment he had to perform twelve almost impossible tasks - 'the labours of Hercules'.
The Roman god Hercules with his club on a stone block from Corbridge (Northumberland). On the left is the Greek goddess Athena, equivalent to the Roman Minerva. Photo Simon I. Hill with the kind permission of English Heritage.
Emperor Flavius Honorius was emperor of the western half of the Roman empire 395-423. He was the last emperor to rule while Britain was still part of the empire. His capital was at Arles in southern Gaul and then Ravenna in Italy.
A half dome in the Roman baths at Arles, France. Photo Patrick Ottaway


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Julia Domna
EmpressEmpress married to Emperor Septimius Severus. She was from Emesa in Syria and a priestess of the goddess Isis. Julia Domna is said to have been an intelligent and quick-witted woman who assisted her husband in his work. Pots made in the shape of a female head in the years around 200 are thought to be modelled on Julia Domna.
Pot in the form of a woman's head thought to be a portrait of the Empress Julia Domna (early 3rd century). Found at York. Yorkshire Museum, York
Julius Caesar
SoldierRoman Dictator. Julius Caesar had a distinguished career in administration and politics at Rome and as an army commander. In 58 - 51BC he was responsible for conquering most of Gaul (France) for the Romans. He wrote a famous account of his wars in Gaul in De Bello Gallico (The Gallic Wars). In 55 and 54BC Caesar invaded Britain, but did not stay to conquer the country. One of Caesar's achievements was to reorganise the calendar creating a year of 365 days which we still use. Julius Caesar was murdered in Rome in 44BC on the Ides (15th) of March.
18th century medallion of Julius Caesar. The wording around the head is CAESAR DICT PERPETVO (Caesar, dictator for ever) Photo: Simon I Hill, Yorkshire Museum, York
GoddessGoddess who was the queen of heaven and believed to watch over the women of the empire. She gave her name to the month of June which is still thought to be the best for marriages.
A Roman bride wearing a flammeum. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain.
God God who was the king of heaven. He was thought to be responsible for storms and thunder, and so he is always shown carrying thunderbolts. On altars dedicated to Jupiter you can usually see the letters IOM which mean Jupiter Optimus (best) and Maximus (greatest).
Altar dedicated to Jupiter at Maryport Roman fort (Cumbria) by Caballius Priscus, the commander (tribunus) of a cohort of Spanish auxiliary soldiers. Jupiter is referred to by the letters IOM meaning Jupiter, best and greatest (IUPITER OPTIMUS MAXIMUS). Photo Simon I Hill, Senhouse Museum, Maryport


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Lollius Urbicus
SoldierQuintus Lollius Urbicus was Governor of Britain 138-142 during the reign of Antoninus Pius. He was responsible for moving the frontier of Britain north from Hadrian's Wall to the Antonine Wall in Scotland.
The Antonine Wall at Watling Lodge near Falkirk (Central Region), Scotland. The ditch is in the centre and the remains of the turf wall to the left. Photo Patrick Ottaway
GoddessThe goddess of the moon. She is often shown with the whip which she used to drive her four horse chariot across the sky during the night.
The Roman moon goddess, Luna, on the gable from a great sculpted stone screen in the temple area at Bath. To the right of her head is a crescent moon. She rode across the night sky in a chariot drawn by four horses and to the right of the moon is her riding whip. Roman Bath Museum, Bath


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Magnus Maximus
EmperorRebel emperor. He came from Spain and was sent to Britain as army commander in about 379. In 383 he won a battle against the Picts and Scots, and was proclaimed emperor by his army. In 388 he was defeated by the Emperor Theodosius in Italy and executed.
Gold coin of the late Roman rebel emperor, Magnus Maximus (383-8).
GodThe Roman god of war. He was thought to be the father of Romulus who founded Rome. Images of Mars often show him with a wolf and a woodpecker.
Statue of the Mars, the Roman god of war from York. Yorkshire Museum, York
GodThe god of merchants and the messenger of the gods. Mercury is often shown with a cockerel and always carries a special staff called a caduceus. This represents an olive stick and two snakes which Mercury once stopped from fighting each other.
Illustration showing the Roman god Mercury, holding his special staff, the caduceus, and presenting a dead soul to Pluto, the god of the underworld (left) and his wife, Persephone by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain
GoddessGoddess who was the daughter of Jupiter and the patron of knowledge, arts and crafts. She is usually shown with an owl, the symbol of wisdom. Because the Roman army needed wisdom when fighting its battles Minerva is usually shown with a helmet and shield.
Relief of the goddess Minerva from Chesters Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall. Photo Simon I. Hill with the kind permission of English Heritage.
GodA mysterious sun god thought to have been born out of a rock or an egg who fought against the powers of darkness and evil. In his temples Mithras was shown on a carved stone tablet sitting astride a bull and stabbing it in the neck to release the blood from which all living things are created.
The god Mithras slaying a bull on a stone tablet from the temple of Mithras at Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall © Museum of Antiquities, Newcastle upon Tyne


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GoddessThe goddess of fate who gave out happiness and unhappiness to human beings and punished their crimes.
Altar dedicated to the goddess Nemesis, dedicated by Sextus Marcianus, at the amphitheatre at Chester. © Grosvenor Museum, Chester.
GodThe god of the sea. He is usually shown with a dolphin and a spear with three points known as a trident which he used to cause or prevent storms.
Statue of Neptune as the god of the River Tyne from Chesters Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall. Photo Simon I. Hill with the kind permission of English Heritage.
EmperorNero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus was emperor 54-68. He was cruel and corrupt, and he is famous for 'fiddling while Rome burned' as the saying goes, which means that he was more interested in his music than in a fire which burnt much of Rome. In Britain the revolt of Boudicca occurred during Nero's reign. Nero committed suicide when his supporters deserted him.
Gold coin of the Emperor Nero (54-68), pierced for use as a pendant, from Exeter. Exeter City Museums and Art Gallery


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GodGod of the ocean which the Romans believed surrounded the whole of the earth.
Roman mosaic showing a bust of the god Oceanus or Neptune from Dorchester (Dorset). Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society
Ostorius Scapula
SoldierPublius Ostorius Scapula was Governor of Britain 47-52. He campaigned in Wales and captured Caratacus. During his governorship the town (colonia) at Colchester was founded.
WriterPublius Ovidus Naso was a Roman poet who lived 43BC - AD17. His best known work is Metamorphoses, a series of poems about people and gods being transformed from one shape to another.
Mosaic from Lullingstone Roman villa (Kent) showing the princess Europa riding on the back of the god Jupiter who is disguised as a white bull. On either side are cupids. The inscription refers to a passage in Vergil's Aeneid. © English Heritage


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Suetonius Paullinus
SoldierGaius Suetonius Paullinus was Governor of Britain 58-61. During his governorship he conquered much of north Wales, including the island of Anglesey, and he also crushed the revolt of Boudicca.
Petilius Cerialis
SoldierQuintus Petilius Cerialis was Governor of Britain 71-74. He began the conquest of the north of Britain and founded the legionary fortress at York.
An actor dressed as the Roman standard bearer Lucius Duccius Rufinus from York. York Archaeological Trust
Platorius Nepos
SoldierAulus Platorius Nepos was Governor of Britain 122-124. The Emperor Hadrian ordered him to begin the construction of Hadrian's Wall.
GodAlso known as Hades, he was the evil god of the underworld where people went after death. Black sheep were offered to him in sacrifices and while they were being made worshippers had to turn away for fear of sudden death.
Pluto, the Roman god of the underworld. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain.
BritonKing of the Iceni, a British tribe who lived in what is now Norfolk. After the Roman conquest Prasutagus was allowed to remain an independent king during his life time. After his death Prasutagus's lands were taken over by the Romans, but when this happened his wife Boudicca led her famous rebellion in 60-1.
Bronze statue of Queen Boudicca and her daughters on Victoria Embankment, London by Thomas Thorneycroft (about 1850). Photo Patrick Ottaway


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God Thought to be the oldest god and the father of Juno, Jupiter and Neptune. The Romans believed that Saturn introduced agriculture and civilisation to the world. The festival of Saturn, known as Saturnalia, was celebrated in December and marked the beginning of the time to sow seeds for the next year's crops.
Mosaic showing the spirit of winter at Brading Roman villa (Isle of Wight). Photo Simon I. Hill, Oglander Roman Trust
Septimius Severus
EmperorLucius Septimius Severus was emperor 193-211. He is sometimes known as the 'African Emperor' as he was born in Lepcis Magna which is now in Algeria. Septimius Severus came to Britain in 208 with his wife Julia Domna and sons Caracalla and Geta. He campaigned against the tribes living in Scotland north of Hadrian's Wall and died at York in 211.
Silver coin (denarius) of the Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211). The reverse shows the god Jupiter with the words IOVI CONSERVATOR ('Jupiter the preserver'). Photo: Simon I Hill, York Archaeological Trust
SoldierFlavius Stilicho. Late 4th century army commander under the Emperor Theodosius I and married to his niece Serena. His father came from a barbarian Germanic tribe known as the Vandals. Stilicho may have been the last Roman general to defend Britain against its enemies. He hoped to become emperor, but was executed in 408.
The Roman general Flavius Stilicho (died 409). Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain
WriterGreek writer who probably lived in the 1st century BC. He was one of the first writers to describe Britain and its people. He tells us that Britain was a source of grain, cattle, hides, gold, silver, iron, hunting dogs and slaves.
An Irish deerhound. Encyclopaedia Britannica
WriterGaius Suetonius lived about 69 - 140 and wrote a History of the Twelve Caesars, the lives of all the rulers of the empire from Julius Caesar to Domitian. It is full of interesting details of their careers and private lives. In the chapter on Claudius the invasion of Britain in 43 is described as 'a campaign of no great importance'. This probably tells you what many Romans thought of Britain.
Gold coin of the Emperor Claudius (41-54). The emperor wears a laurel wreath around his head. On the reverse is the arch built in Rome in 51 to mark the conquest of Britain. It is inscribed DE BRITTANN(IS) - 'for Britain'. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford


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WriterCornelius Tacitus lived about 55 - 120 and is the most important Roman historian for Britain. He wrote a biography of his father-in-law Agricola, Governor of Britain in about 78-84, in which he describes his campaigns and some of the people he fought against in Britain. Tacitus also wrote The Histories and The Annals of Rome which mention people like Boudicca and Cartimandua, and describe events in Britain in the second half of the 1st century AD.
Reconstruction of Roman London in about the year 120. Illustration by Peter Froste, © Museum of London
Theodosius I
EmperorEmperor 379-95 and usually known as Theodosius 'the Great'. During his reign he made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire and banned all other religions.
Modern bust of the Emperor Theodosius at his home town of Coca, Spain. Photo Patrick Ottaway
BritonPrince of the Catuvellauni people in south-east England at the time of the Roman invasion in 43. He was a son of King Cunobelinus and, like his brother Caratacus, he hated the Romans. Togodumnus was killed in battle as the Romans advanced on Colchester.
The tombstone of the Thracian cavalryman Sextus Valerius Genialis from Cirencester. Corinium Museum
EmperorMarcus Ulpius Traianus was emperor 98-117. He was born in Italica in Spain and was the first Roman emperor not to be born in Italy. Trajan conquered the province of Dacia, now Romania, and his campaigns are commemorated in sculpture on a column ('Trajan's Column') erected over his tomb in Rome.
Bronze coin of the Emperor Trajan (98-117).


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Valentinian I
EmperorEmperor 364-75 and originally a general from Pannonia, now Yugoslavia. During his reign, in 367, Britain suffered a serious attack by barbarians which was recorded by the historian Ammianus Marcellinus. Valentinian sent a man known as Count Theodosius to restore order in Britain. It was probably Theodosius who built a group of watch towers, or signal stations, on the coast of Yorkshire.
Artist's impression of the late Roman signal station at Filey by night. Illustration by Simon Chew, York Archaeological Trust
BritonThe armour-bearer of Venutius, the nobleman who was married to Queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes. Vellocatus replaced Venutius in the queen's affections which led to a revolt by Venutius against Cartimandua in about 69.
The defences of the pre-Roman (Iron Age) enclosure at Stanwick (North Yorkshire), where Queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes probably had her royal residence. Photo Patrick Ottaway
GoddessThe Roman goddess of love and beauty. Roman brides sacrificed a lock of their hair to Venus on their wedding day.
Mosaic showing the head of the Roman goddess Venus at Bignor Roman villa (Sussex). Photo Simon I. Hill, Bignor Roman Villa
BritonA nobleman married to Queen Cartimandua of Brigantes, the British tribe which occupied most of northern England. Venutius hated the Romans and in about 69 he rebelled against his wife causing the Romans to intervene to save the queen and seize Brigantia, the land of the Brigantes.
Artist's impression of the Brigantian nobleman Venutius. Illustration by Sarah Hall, Roman Britain.
WriterPublius Vergilius Maro was a Roman poet of the 1st century BC. His most famous work is The Aeneid, the story of the hero Aeneas who fled from the destruction of the legendary ancient city of Troy, probably now in Turkey. Guided by the gods, he travelled to Italy where he founded Lavinium, a town in the same part of Italy where Rome itself would later be built.
Mosaic from Low Ham villa (Somerset) showing scenes from the story of Dido and Aeneas in the Aeneid by Vergil. Right: the ships carrying Aeneas and his men arrive at Carthage. Top centre: Aeneas (left) and Dido (right) are brought together by Cupid disguised as Ascanius, Aeneas's son, sent by Venus. Left: Dido and Aeneas go out hunting on horseback. Bottom centre: Dido and Aeneas embrace in the cave while sheltering from a storm. Centre: Venus flanked by cupids holding lighted torches. Somerset County Museum Service
BritonKing of the Atrebates, a British tribe who occupied central southern England in the early 1st century AD. He was pro-Roman and urged the Romans to invade Britain, probably because he had been exiled from his kingdom by anti-Roman enemies.
GoddessThe Roman goddess of victory. She is usually shown with wings and holding a laurel wreath.
Statue of the Roman goddess of Victory (Victoria) found at Housesteads Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall. Photo Simon I. Hill with the kind permission of English Heritage.
EmperorTitus Flavius Vespasianus was emperor 69-79. Vespasian was a general with the army that invaded Britain in 43 and he commanded the Second Legion Augusta which campaigned in the west country. While he was emperor the Romans completed the conquest of Wales and began the conquest of the north of Britain.
Gold coin (aureus) of the Emperor Vespasian (69-79).On the reverse is a chariot drawn by four horses. Berlin
GodThe Roman god of fire. He is usually shown holding a blacksmith's hammer.
A blacksmith - possibly representing the Roman god Vulcan - shown on a stone monument from York. Yorkshire Museum, York.
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