Phase 10 (early to mid 17th century)
The original southern wall of Building U was demolished and a new one
constructed further north, creating a shorter building. The northern room measured c.6.5 m long by c.5m wide and the southern
room c.5m long by c.4m wide. The construction of this new wall reduced the length of Building U by c.3.5m. The
new southern wall was constructed on a solid limestone foundation with a 16th to 18th
century brick wall above (1612). Just to the south of the new wall a post-hole
was inserted, perhaps to support a scaffold while the wall was under construction. Between Buildings U
and V the large double chimney stack (constructed in Phase 9.8) was demolished, the ground levelled
(1488) and two post-holes (1415 and 1453) inserted.
These two post-holes indicate the position of a new
north-east to south-west aligned partition wall between Buildings U and V. To the south-west, a brick,
H-shaped, double chimney stack (1255) was built between the northern and southern rooms of Building U,
re-using an architectural fragment. In the southern room only a tiny
fragment of sandstone floor 2349 and an unusual brick-lined pit of unknown function (2326)
Within Building V the southern side of the demolished double chimney stack
was re-used as the foundation for a new north-west to south-east aligned
brick wall (1363). On the eastern side of the building a new brick wall (2013) was inserted, to replace
the earlier wall 2012 (see Phase 9.8). The new wall contained two bricks that originally came from
a brick door or window archway dating from the 16th to the 18th century.
The area to the south of Building U was converted into a yard, which was
levelled with a series of deposits (including 1332, 1345, 1352,
13851387, 1393, 1461, 1477,
1535 and 1552)
that contained considerable metalworking material, probably redeposited from the earlier use of
Building U. Food waste was a component of these desposits (see environmental report).
Pottery recovered from these deposits
was dated to the late 16th century. A series of post- and stake-holes
(including 1402 and 1531) and levelling
deposits (including 1483 and 1524) were also located to the south
of Building U.
On the eastern side of the yard behind Building V, the path or surface (constructed
in Phase 9.9) was repaired utilising metalworking waste including mould fragments
from the casting of copper alloy vessels. This contained some
possible painted wall plaster (see the artefacts report).
Building X, which was originally constructed in Phase 9.2 in the south-west
corner of the excavation area, appears to have been rebuilt at this time. A new construction cut orientated
north-east to south-west was filled with a limestone foundation (2688) and topped with a brick wall
(2686). The bricks were recycled 14th or 15th century types. It was impossible to tell the dimensions
of the rebuilt Building X, and no occupation deposits relating to its use were recovered.
Phase 11 (mid 17th to early 18th century)
To the south of Building V a massive construction cut (3330) was dug for the insertion of a limestone
well shaft (1789). The shaft was constructed using re-used architectural fragments
and the construction cut was backfilled with dumped material, some of which related to metalworking
and was clearly residual. The environmental evidence from one of the backfills
suggests the disposal of butchery waste.
To the north of the well shaft a limestone wall foundation (1236), orientated north-west to south-east,
was constructed. This formed a new back wall for Building V, some 4m to the south of the original wall.
This large extension to Building V doubled its size to
c.9m long by c.8m wide. The extension measured c.8m long and between c.4m and 5m wide; it
was L-shaped to fit in with the original structure.
Within the southern room of Building V, a construction cut (1344) for a chimney stack was dug. This was
attached to the south side of the original back wall, and would have heated the southern room. Bedding
deposits (including 1306) were laid for new floors within the building.
To the south of wall 1236, and surrounding the well shaft, a large number of levelling deposits
(including 12771278, 12891290,
1299, 1313, 1316, 1333, 1343,
1392, 1409, 1456, 1565, 1647,
1729, 1800 and 1856) were laid
down to raise and stabilise the ground surface. Most of these contained pottery of
the 17th century, but two contained some 18th century pottery. The extent of the levelling deposits
suggests a reorganisation of the yard area at this time, the new yard extending
to the south of Buildings U and V to the southern limit of excavation over the areas where Buildings W
and Y had stood. One of the levelling deposits contained two triangular glazed floor
The rest of the deposits within the yard area are fragmentary and
difficult to interpret. On the western side, just to the south of Building U, a post-hole (1450) was dug,
perhaps replacing a Phase 10 post-hole (see above).
It was rapidly removed and backfilled before a shallow pit (1448) was dug for the disposal of building
debris and domestic waste. Both of these features contained pottery of the 17th century. To the east of
these features a rubble footing (1904) was built, perhaps as an area of hardstanding within the yard.
It was sealed by a levelling deposit which contained a piece of lead window came (SF00804) (see
the artefacts report). On the west side of the well shaft a fragment of cobble surface
(1615) was laid down. This may originally have been larger in extent, possibly surrounding the top of the
well shaft. A mortar floor remnant (1675) and a possible post-pad (1670) were located to the west; both
were rapidly sealed by a further levelling deposit. In the southern area of the yard a mortar mixing
pit (1274) was dug, perhaps to provide mortar for the construction work on Building V.
On the eastern side of the excavation area a layer of trample (1645) accumulated as a result of construction
work on Building V and the well shaft. A levelling layer (1536), which contained a copper
alloy buckle (SF00701), sealed its western side. Two small pits (1528
and 1649) were dug to dispose of construction waste.
To the south-west of the pits several further levelling deposits were laid down before the construction
of a new limestone wall (1521). This was fragmentary and difficult to interpret, but
may be the south wall of an exterior privy.
Phase 12 (early 18th to early 19th century)
On the eastern side of the excavation area a clearance cut removed many of the earlier deposits close to the
Walmgate street frontage. Building Z was then constructed, a new brick wall (1357)
being built on its western side. The area close to the Walmgate street frontage contained a slightly sunken
brick floor that was removed by machine at the start of the excavations. To the rear of the new building a
small square pit (1446) was dug, for a small brick-lined privy (1433). Several tobacco pipe fragments
including a decorated bowl (see the artefacts report) were recovered from the privy backfill.
A line of post-holes (including 1539, 3288 and 32903291)
ran along the eastern side of wall 1357. These
would have held posts to support the wall. To the west, within Building V, two large
post-holes (1406 and 1493) were cut to support the upper floor of Building V
(reached by stairs rising from stairbase 1837 which was constructed in Phase 9.8) while
was created. The alley measured c.1.3m wide and was carved out of the eastern side of Building V. Only a
small fragment of the southern end of the alley surface (1506) was recovered. The posts were then removed
and backfilled, the fills containing a fragment of peg tile
with a toddler’s footprint on it, as well as residual metalworking material. On top of
this backfill material a post-pad was inserted, perhaps to support a screen for the western side of the alley.
Adjacent to the northern side of wall 1236, within Building V, a linear trench was
excavated. This was probably inserted to aid renovation work to the base of the wall, perhaps to replace
a sill beam. The backfill material of this renovation trench contained pottery of
the 18th or 19th century.
To the south of privy 1433 and privy wall 1521, behind Buildings V and Z, several
levelling deposits (including 1467) were laid down. An environmental sample of
charred material from levelling deposit 1467 was identified as oats and cereal chaff.
The levelling deposits, which seemed to form a platform of clay, were then
truncated by a post-hole and the construction cut for a wall base (1407). This probably formed part of an
outbuilding behind Buildings V and Z.
On the western side of the excavation area, within Building U, a new hearth plate
of sandstone and brick (1244) was inserted on the northern side of the H-shaped chimney stack
1255. To the
south of Building U there was a levelling dump containing 18th century pottery.
Phase 13 (early 19th to the late 20th century)
Buildings U and V were re-organised into three tenements with the construction of
a number of brick dividing walls (including 1206, 1230, 1323,
1337 and 1398), orientated north-east to
south-west. Building U did not change dramatically in form, but Building V was split into two tenements,
referred to as the east and west tenements. On either side of wall 1337, the foundations for two
hearths (1234, 1311, 1367 and 1370)
were inserted, suggesting that the wall supported a chimney stack. The hearths would
have heated the northern rooms of the east and west tenements. Levelling and floor deposits built
up within both of the tenements of Building V. These were fragmentary in nature due to later truncation.
In the eastern tenement a brick ash box (1233) was inserted in front of the hearth in the northern room.
The L-shaped brick structure (initially built in Phase 9.8), situated in the south-eastern corner of
this room, was re-used as a coal store. A new footing was inserted on its western side for an internal door.
The footing re-used a rotary grindstone (SF00663) to hold a door post (see artefacts report).
A second door may have given access to the coal bunker from the alley, but no evidence for this was
recovered. The bedding layer for the new door footing contained pottery of the
19th century. In the southern room of the western tenement of Building V a brick structure
(1205) was interpreted as the footings for a stairbase.
To the south of Building V a number of post-holes were inserted. These probably
formed a fence line to the west of well 1789. The fence line appeared
to form the southern side of a passage, c.1m wide on the southern side of Building V. The passage was
short lived and the post-holes were backfilled with deposits containing 19th century pottery.
Superseding the fence line was a foundation trench for a limestone wall, orientated north-east to
south-west. No other walls survive suggesting that this wall represented a division within the backyard.
A mortar floor was laid down to the west of it. Only one block of the wall survived due to robbing.
Sealing the robbing trenches was a fragmentary brick floor. It was impossible to
tell if this floor was part of a further structure to the west of well 1789 in the backyard area. A number
of post-holes and other cuts then truncated the western side of the brick floor, signifying that it had gone out of use.
Levelling deposits were laid down to the west and south of well 1789.
Several copper alloy pins and tubes as well as a lead alloy weight, a post-medieval marble and a slate
pencil were recovered from these deposits. The animal bone assemblage from one of these deposits showed
signs of butchery (see the environmental report). Residual metalworking
waste was also retrieved from these deposits.
Above the levelling deposits to the south of well 1789 a brick-built coal shed (Building AB)
was constructed. This had a brick floor, but as it was located in the corner of the excavation its
overall dimensions could not be estimated. To the west of it a large area of the eastern part of the yard
was sealed by a mortar floor. Two post-holes were cut into this floor. The post-holes rapidly went
out of use, were backfilled and a new floor was laid down to the west of the building. The new floor was
dated by pottery to the 19th century.
To the north of this another outbuilding (Building AC) was constructed. This
consisted of a levelled area, a limestone rubble wall and an internal brick floor.
Several modern drains and service pipes truncated the site. After their insertion,
backfill and levelling several internal changes were made to Buildings U and V. The
southern portion of the western alley wall was rebuilt. Only the mortar bedding (1258) from this was recovered.
The hearth plate (1248) in the southern room of the east tenement of Building V was replaced. Within the
western tenement of Building V the wall between the northern and southern rooms appears to have been rebuilt
(1356), using a strong modern grey cement, before the insertion of a quarry tile floor to the north of it.
There was extensive evidence for the insertion of quarry tile floors in both Buildings U and V, some of which
destroyed much of the late medieval and post-medieval sequences within these buildings.
Apart from a dump of hearth ash to the south of well 1789, the entire site appears to have been sealed by
demolition deposits, which included dumped architectural fragments.
Clearly all the buildings on site had been demolished by this stage. The eastern side of the site contained
a cluster of post-holes of unknown function. A sequence of fence lines and dumps were recorded along the
Walmgate street frontage and along the property division between Buildings V and Z. Finally, modern dumps sealed
the whole of the excavation area.
South wall of Building U (1612)
Moulded brick from context 1612
Chimney stack 1255
Mould fragments from the yard surface repair (1610)
Well 1789 and its construction cut left of centre
Re-used window sill and mullion base from
Buildings U and V under excavation
Glazed triangular floor tiles
Copper alloy buckle SF00701
Building Z and the alley are in the foreground
Tile from context 1492 with a toddler's footprint
Wall base 1407
Buildings U and V
in Phase 13
Rotary grindstone SF00663
Brick floor and wall identified as
Quarry tile floor (1201)
Reverse of quarry tile showing maker's stamp
View of the site before excavation