Phase 2: late 10th to early 11th century  
Timber Buildings F and G Matrix Diagram

Timber buildings, Buildings F and G, overlaid the deposits recorded in Phase 1. These were located within the two deepest parts of the excavation area, Area Q (along the Walmgate street frontage) and the site of a lift shaft (for the building to be constructed on the site during redevelopment). These were assigned to a separate phase as Building F was structurally different from the earlier buildings.


A new timber building, Building F, was constructed within the lift shaft area. The western wall consisted of a rubble footing (2695), on top of which a timber sill beam (2696) was placed. The new wall was aligned north-east to south-west and the building measured over 2.6m long and over 2.2m wide. A post 2632 from the earlier Phase 1 building, Building B, was re-used within Building F. The construction of Building F was dated by pottery to the late 10th or early 11th century.

Internal organic and clay floors, including 2753 and 27972798, built up to the east and north of rubble footing 2695. A decorated lead alloy mount (see SF01144 in the artefacts report), which may date to the 10th century, was recovered from these floor deposits as well as pottery of a similar date to footing 2695 described above. The environmental evidence suggests that cow, pig and oyster were being consumed but could not help with interpreting the function of Building F. Residual Roman brick and tile was recovered from footing 2695 and floor deposit 2798.

A series of dump deposits then sealed the northern end of rubble footing 2695, probably indicating the demolition of Building F. These deposits also contained pottery of the late 10th or early 11th century.

Within Area Q there were a number of slight structural elements. These included a pair of post-holes (4144 and 4147), a deliberate levelling dump (4178) and a small slot or post-hole (4177). It was not readily apparent, due to the limited size of the excavated area, whether these structural features indicate the presence of one or several timber buildings on the Walmgate street frontage. These were combined to form a single structure (Building G) to aid description within the assessment report. No artefacts or pottery were recovered from these features or deposits.

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Western wall of
Building F

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Lead alloy mount SF01144
© Copyright York Archaeological Trust 2003